Ch. 1 – What is “the present evil age?”
What does it mean to be accursed for teaching a contrary Gospel? Teaching a contrary Gospel means that one is seeking approval of man, not of God. Approval is the key word here – note what Paul said in his mentoring of Timothy: “Be diligent to present yourself approved to God…” (II Tim. 2:15).
Ch. 2 – Jews spied on Paul’s fellowship with those who were uncircumcised. How did the Jews know that Paul’s friends were uncircumcised? And, how did Paul presume they knew that Titus and others were uncircumcised? In other words, the setting had to be one in which uncircumcised features were seen… maybe?
Another key word/phrase when discussing faith and works: “works of the law.” Believers show their faith by their works, that is, the works of faith (or works of love, as Paul would later call it), not works of the law (James 2:18). Really, both Paul and James teach faith and works of faith (or, works of love), and that works of the law do not lead to justification, that is, saving faith.
Ch. 3 – Paul continues his defense of faith vs. works of the law. The law was a guardian until Christ (who is the offspring of Abraham) came. We are now under Christ, not the law.
Works of the law do not equal works of faith. These are different and should be read in context.
Ch. 5 – Only faith working through love counts, not works of the law.
Ch. 6 – The value of teaching and equipping is that the one who is taught should share all good things with the one who teaches.