The Korân – a review

Korân – [ kəˈrän; kô-, ˈkôrän ]
NOUN – the Islamic sacred book, believed to be the word of God as dictated to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel and written down in Arabic.  The Koran consists of 114 units of varying lengths, known as suras; the first sura is said as part of the ritual prayer.  These touch upon all aspects of human existence, including matters of doctrine, social organization, and legislation.*
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The following is my (lengthy) review made from reading a 1909 edition of The Koran.**  Verse numbers are not printed in this volume, although chapter numbers are given.  Notes will be based on chapter and page number.  Throughout this review, lower case “g” will refer to the Muslim god (likewise, lower case for “he,” “scripture,” etc.) – the name “Allah” is not used in this volume.  Upper case “G” will refer to the Judeo-Christian God (likewise, upper case “He,” the “Holy Scriptures,” etc.) to help distinguish the reference.  The Koran does not make this distinction and always uses an upper case “G” as it is believed both are the same.  All Koran quotes will be in “quotations.”  All Holy Scripture quotes will be in italics.  The spelling of the Koran throughout this review is without the circumflex above the letter “a” (that is, “â”) to avoid cumbersome typing.
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Chapter 1 – The preface, or introduction, revealed at Mecca
The Koran’s opening chapter is a very short three sentence prayer equivalent to Muslims as the Lord’s Prayer is to Christians (it’s their “sign of the Cross”).  The prayer acknowledges, in essence, that the way of the Koran is right, and the way of Jews and Christians is wrong (because Jews and Christians have strayed, thus incensing God).  The prayer basically affirms as correct and right the way of the Koran’s god.

Chapter 2 – The cow
On page 4 is mentioned that “infidels,” or unbelievers of the Muslim god, should “fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for unbelievers.”  This brings to mind the execution, by Islamic terrorists, of a Jordanian pilot in January 2015, who was set on fire in a steel cage, and was then buried beneath a pile of stone rubble while he burned to death.***

The Koran, in the original Arabic language, uses the plural “Moslemûna,” and the singular “Moslem” (page 19) to describe those who are “resigned” to god (the name “Muslim” actually refers to one who “is resigned to”).  To be sure, the Koran is believed to be Moslemûna’s god’s revelation to Mohammed, via the angel Gabriel, and not Mohammed’s words exactly.

Also, Muslims (that is, Moslemûna, and so throughout the remainder of this review), do not make a distinction between any of the prophets:  Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Jesus, Mohammed, and any other number of prophets or apostles (page 20).  It is to their god that they are resigned, and who they believe is the same god as the Christian God.

Muslims, in fact, hold the Pentateuch and other Holy Scriptures in high regard (at least the way they read or interpret it), but accuse Jews and Christians of maligning or even changing, and ultimately reject the Holy Scriptures.

On page 22, it is mentioned “who are slain in the way of god,” referring to those Muslims who die in war undertaken against unbelievers for the propagation of the Muslim faith…  and so throughout the Koran.

Page 25 gives the law of retaliation, providing Muslims their god-given orders to kill, or, “O true believers, the law of retaliation is ordained you for the slain.”  Mercy can be arbitrarily given by Muslims to their enemies (infidels) – it is not mandated.

A fast is commanded in the month of Ramadan, in which month the Koran was believed to be initially sent from heaven (page 26).

On page 27, it is given:  “Fight for the religion of god against those who fight against you, but transgress not by attacking them first…  and kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out of that whereof they have dispossessed you.”  In context, this is a clear call to Muslims for holy war, not just in history past, but in the present and future as well.

The only thing that god has sent to the Muslims is the Koran (page 33).  In contrast, Christians have Jesus sent from God, the Word in the flesh.

There’s much talk of infidels deserving of hell fire, and much talk about killing (and so throughout the Koran).  But on page 37, there is this:  “Let there be no violence in religion.”  This apparently was directed at early Mohammedans whose sons either forced others to be Muslim or were themselves forced to be Muslim.  This is a command from the Koran that, in context, does not allow for violent conversions or even purging of infidels.  However, as throughout the Koran, there are innumerable contradictory statements, making this command of no effect.

The Koran specifically says that secret (private) alms given to the poor will atone for “your sins” (page 40).  Following this, there is some discussion about the handling of usury (interest).  Its context is very much anti-capitalism.  Also, details are given regarding the handling of earnings, and holding or collecting interest – even for Muslims to “hearken unto war against them (other Muslims)” if they need to enforce these guidelines.

Interestingly, on page 40, it is stated that “god loves no infidel or ungodly person.”  These last few points offer these opposing views to Christianity:

1) Giving secret alms atones for sin;
2) Violence will be done to other Muslims who handle their money wrong;
3) The Muslim god loves no unbeliever, the infidel deserving of death.  This is in sharp contrast to John 3:16 where “God so loved the world…” and Ezekiel 33:11 where God says, “…I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked turn from his way and live. Turn, turn from your evil ways! For why should you die, O house of Israel?”

Chapter 3 – The family of Imrân
On pages 44-45, we learn that “the true religion in the sight of god is Islam.”  A discussion follows on the “profession of the religion of Islam.”  Those who turn their backs on Islam should have “denounce(d) unto them a painful punishment,” to be meted out by god.  On the day of judgment, god will deal with the Jews first, sending them to hell because of their wickedness.

This chapter introduces Islam as the proper name for the Muslim religion.  The name signifies the resigning or devoting of oneself entirely to god and his service.  This is said to be the religion all the prophets were sent to teach (including among them Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Moses, Jesus, Mohammed, and many other Biblical persons).

Muslims believe that Jesus was a prophet, but a man of no divine nature who was taken up to heaven before He was crucified, and that another man was crucified in His place.  Jesus was then sent back to comfort His mother and followers – all orchestrated by god.

On page 52, we find that Muslims believe that Jesus was created as miraculously as Adam was created.  The Muslim god said, “Be,” and they were, but as such, Jesus is still believed to have been born through Mary, more evidence of how much the Koran contradicts itself.

On page 54, a practicing Muslim who is a “true believer” resigned to god would not be asked by god to become an infidel (unbeliever).  Islam is proclaimed to be true on page 56.  Also, a Muslim who becomes an infidel cannot become a Muslim again and is due a grievous punishment.

If a Muslim “obeys” someone who received the Holy Scriptures, he will be rendered an infidel (page 57).  Muslims are to obey god only and the word he sent in the Koran.  Furthermore, on page 58, it is stated that most (i.e., the Jews) who received the Holy Scriptures, were unbelievers.  These transgressors, or infidels, can either profess the Muslim religion or “obtain security by entering into a treaty with god (i.e., convert) and a treaty with men (i.e., pay tribute).”

Islam is again proclaimed “the best nation raised up unto mankind” (page 58).  The Koran calls for Muslims to have nothing to do with other religions as these will corrupt Islam (page 59).

Muslims are said to be superior to infidels (page 61).  The Muslim god knows and approves martyrs among them to destroy the infidels, and a reward for martyrdom is promised (page 62).

The Koran cites a historical reference to a time when Muslims destroyed unbelievers with god’s permission (page 63).

To this point, it is often repeated, “god is gracious and merciful” (and throughout the Koran).  This applies especially to Muslim believers and to those who seek god’s forgiveness for their unbelief (or rather, “disobedience”) that wasn’t unto utter apostasy.  One such example is given on page 64 where two Muslim armies met at Ohod and turned their backs on the mission (subsequently, the Koran notes that god forgave them).

Chapter 4 – Women
The Koran calls for Muslims to “respect women” (page 71), with a lengthy discourse on how this is to be done.  There is specific mention of having multiple wives for sake of avoiding fornication, itself a sin – a rather convenient allowance of Muslim men.

Unmarried women committing fornication were to be locked up until they died (page 74).  That has been modified by the Sunna, a body of customs which served as a law code, second only to the Koran**** (note the connection to Sunni Muslims).  For fornication, the Sunna now provides a punishment of 100 lashes and a year of banishment for maidens, and stoning to death for married women.

On page 77 is the statement, “men shall have the preeminence above women,” because god has caused men to excel over women.  There is also the clause that men may “chastise them,” meaning that men may beat their wives if she is stubborn, but not in a violent or dangerous way.

The Koran commands Muslims to “show kindness to” their people (of their religion or nation), and to “your neighbor who is a stranger.”  This gives the sense that Muslims ought to be kind to everyone, even those they don’t know (who might be an infidel?). However, immediately following this on page 78 are contradictory directions to fight the infidels (unbelievers), even o this point:  “Let them (Muslim believers) therefore fight for the religion of god (against any unbeliever), who part with the present life in exchange for that which is to come; for whosoever fight for the religion of god, whether he be slain, or be victorious, we (god) will surely give him a great reward” (page 83).  One of those rewards is an undefined number of maidens (virgins) in the afterlife for each martyr.

On page 81, it is stated, “…they (pretend believers) desire to go to judgment before Taghût,” a vague reference to this alleged true story:

A Jew and a Muslim had a dispute, each taking the case to his own judge, the Jew to a principled Jew named Taghût, the Muslim to Mohammed.  The case could not be easily resolved so they both agreed to have Mohammed rule on the case, who eventually ruled in favor of the Jewish man.  This displeased the Muslim who had the case reheard by Omar (aka, Al Farûk).  The Jew told Omar that Mohammed had ruled in his favor, to which to Muslim man said was true.  Omar retrieved a sword and cut off the Muslim’s head, saying, “This is the reward of him who refuses to submit to the judgment of god.”

The story appears to give Muslims reason to punish anyone (Muslim or infidel) for not submitting to god.  This theme comes up often in the Koran, especially throughout chapter 4.

The command is given on page 86 to not befriend the ungodly (infidels), and if they “fly their country for the religion of god,” then turn back from the Muslim faith, they are to be killed.  However, there is some vague command that if they (infidels) “depart from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, god does not allow you to take or kill them.”  This could be a veiled reference to God’s instructions in Deuteronomy 20 in the way the Israelites were to fight wars (specifically, verse 10:  When you go near a city to fight against it, then proclaim an offer of peace to it.). If so, Muslims, as usual, take the Holy Scriptures out of context.  However, infidels are to be killed if they attempt to make peace while at the same time secretly rally their countrymen against Muslims.  This gives Muslims a lot of room to justify killing under any circumstance.

On page 91, it is reiterated for Muslims, “Fear to abuse your wives.”  Again, instructions are given to treat women fairly, albeit contradictory to previous instructions.

Verses on pages 94-96 make it clear that Jesus is but a prophet.  When Jews die, Muslims believe they will realize upon their last breath that Jesus is indeed a prophet from god but it will be too late; and when Christians die, Muslims believe they will realize upon their last breath that Jesus was not God.  The Koran teaches that god is one and that he cannot be three, that is, the Father, the Son, and Holy Spirit.  This is clearly the best evidence that Muslims do not believe in nor worship the Holy God, as they claim to do.  Their god is different in every way yet they maintain that he is the god that Jews and Christians worship and malign and misinterpret.

Chapter 5 – The table
The Koran states, “They are infidels, who say, verily God is Christ the son of Mary” (page 100).  After this assertion, the Koran brings up charges against Jews and Christians who claim to be children of God.

Sale’s commentary on page 101 (footnote 1) explains that a fatra is a period of time between prophets during which there is no revelation from god (for instance, between Moses and Jesus, and Jesus and Mohammed).

On page 103 is given the instructions for how to punish any number of crimes:  “Those who fight against god and his apostles, and study to act corruptly in the earth, shall be slain, or crucified, or have their hands and their feet cutoff on the opposite sides, or be banished from the land.”  And, “If a man or woman steal, cut off their hands…  this is an exemplary punishment appointed by god.”

While the Jews have the Law and Christians have the Gospel, both are acknowledged to have been sent by god, but the Koran supersedes both (page 105).  The Muslim god, as stated here, “gave (Jesus) the gospel, containing direction and light; confirming also the law which was given before it.”  The Koran was also sent down, with truth “confirming that Scripture that was revealed before it; and preserving the same safe from corruption.”  This justifies the Koran as being over and above the Holy Scriptures.  (There appears to be a command for obeying the Holy Scriptures and the Koran simultaneously, with the Koran, of course, having the final word – page 109).

There is again the command:  “O true believers, take not the Jews or Christians for your friends (page 106), followed by an extended explanation.

The Koran confirms again for the Muslim that his god is one god:  “They are surely infidels, who say God is Christ the son of Mary…  god shall exclude him from paradise and his habitation shall be hell fire…  They are certainly infidels, who say, God is the third of three” (page 110).

The Koran indicates that god gave Jesus permission to perform His miracles (page 116), one of which was the appearance of a table of food set before his followers (who had requested it).  Upon feasting, people were healed of their infirmities.  The table was alleged to have been sent on a Sunday, thus the Christians’ reason for observing that day.  At any rate, it is, at best, an “imperfect notion of Christ’s last supper and the institution of the Eucharist” (according to Sale’s commentary, page 117, footnote 1).

Chapter 6 – Cattle
On page 120, the Koran prophecies that some will say that “the unbeliever will say, this (the Koran) is nothing but silly fables of ancient times.”  The warning here is that infidels will try to prevent (“forbid”) others from believing it.  This will ultimately lead to the destruction of their own souls, especially since they (infidels) couldn’t even believe their own Holy Scriptures given by God.  This theme continues for several pages and comes up again in other chapters.

On page 122, those who accuse Mohammed, other apostles/prophets, and the Koran of falsehood are “deaf and dumb, walking in darkness: god will lead into error whom he pleases, and whom he pleases he will put in the right way.”  This dogma is held throughout the Koran.  It’s another difference in their god and the Christian’s God:  The Muslim god causes (leads) some people to walk in darkness, punishing them in the eternal fires of hell.  The Holy God does not do this.  He offers eternal life with Him:  For whoever calls upon the name of the Lord shall be saved (Romans 10:13); and specifically in Joel 2:32:  And it shall come to pass that whoever calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved.  For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance, as the Lord has said, among the remnant whom the Lord calls.

The Koran denies to the infidel a “patron or intercessor, except him (god),” thereby condemning those who call upon anyone but god.  This is in contrast to people who call upon Jesus as their Lord and the Holy Spirit as their intercessor (page 123).  The Koran goes on to add in contradictory form, “Drive not away those who call upon their Lord morning and evening, desiring to see His face.”  The command is not to interfere with the one who calls upon God out of his ignorance (i.e., ignorance of Islam).  If these “work evil through ignorance, and afterwards repents and amends, unto him will he (god) surely be gracious and merciful.”  Again, there is contradiction here with other commands to kill or banish unbelievers, perhaps leaving that decision to the Muslim and the circumstance.

On page 125, the Koran asserts itself to be truth, even if others (unbelievers) say it is false.  It goes on to say, “the direction of god is the true direction.”  It seems there are numerous verses throughout the Koran that assert it veracity, as if to remind Muslims that this, the word of their god in the Koran, is true.

Furthermore, the Koran again gives its own validation of the Holy Scriptures:  “This book (the Koran) which we have sent down is blessed; confirming that which was revealed before it;” as if the Holy Scriptures needed confirming or validation from sources other than God (page 129).

On page 130, it is said that god created genii, in this sense, good and bad angels, but it is interesting that the Arabic word is translated here into English as genii (plural), or genie (singular).  Belief in the effectual work of genii in mankind was not limited to the Arabic world but it was certainly propounded by the Koran.  Genii are also discussed on pages 131 and 133.  Sale mentions in his commentary that the apostles (prophets) of Islam were sent to convert both genii (angels) and men (page 134).  These apostles included many of the Old and New Testament patriarchs, Jesus, and Mohammed.

The Koran again makes a statement about god directing whoever he pleases “to receive the faith of Islam,” as well as leading whoever he pleases into error and ultimately “inflict(ing) a terrible punishment on those who believe not” (page 133).  Incidentally, the phrase, “terrible punishment,” is used throughout the Koran to indicate some type of eternal punishment in the fires of hell for infidels (unbelievers).

The Koran commands, “Slay not the soul which god has forbidden you to slay, unless for a just cause” (page 137).  The just causes are retaliation or punishment (at the hands of Muslims) for murder, apostasy, and adultery.  These are the three main capital crimes elaborately defined throughout the Koran.

Chapter 7 – Al Arâf
Not to make a big deal about this but Mohammed was illiterate (even stated on page 160, “the illiterate prophet”).

Again, the Koran states that “Whomsoever god shall direct, he will be rightly directed; and whomsoever he shall lead astray, they shall perish” (page 163).  This is followed by the statement that there are some angels (genii) and men who are created for hell.  The Koran calls these “brute beasts” (page 163), reminiscent of brute beasts mentioned in Jude 10 of the Holy Scriptures.  Likewise, however, the Koran describes “…of those whom we (god) have created there are a people who direct others with truth, and act justly” (page 163).

On page 165, the Koran again insists that god “sent down the book of the Koran,” and “they who fear god, when a temptation from Satan assails the, remember the divine commands, and behold, they clearly see the danger of sin and the wiles of the devil” (page 165).

It is stated on page 166 that the Koran “is a direction and mercy unto people who believe.”  When the Koran is read people are to keep silent so as to obtain god’s mercy.

Chapter 8 – The spoils
The Koran expressly assigns decapitation and also the cutting off of all the tips of the fingers of the enemies of the Muslim religion (page 169) as stated, “This shall they suffer, because they have resisted god and his apostle.”  Included is “the infidels shall also suffer the torment of hell fire.”  Although the context here is historical, the practice has been embraced by Muslims to recent years.

On page 171 is another historical context of infidels “hav(ing) nothing to offer in excuse why god should not punish them, since they hindered the believers from visiting the holy temple” in Mecca.  This is still thought true today of infidels (again, a reminder that infidels refers to unbelievers).

The Koran claims that the Muslim god drowned the people of Pharaoh at the parting of the Red Sea (page 174).

The Koran references other infidels who are not known to those in the (historical) setting of this chapter, evidenced by the phrase, “…and into other infidels besides them, whom you know not, but god knows them” (page 175).  Here, unbelievers are not to be taken as captive until “a great slaughter of the infidels in the earth” is made.

Chapter 9 – The declaration of immunity
(Sale, the interpreter, comments that this chapter, the 7th of seven long ones, was the last revelation to Mohammed shortly before the prophet died.)

On page 183, the Koran again insinuates that unbelievers worship their God as several, “…although they are commanded to worship one God only,” a reference to the Christian belief in the triune God.  Here, the Koran affirms that the Muslim god “sent his apostle (Mohammed) with the direction, and true religion (Islam):  that he may cause it to appear  superior to every other religion.”

Muslims are not to use wealth (i.e., “gold and silver”) “for the advancement of god’s true religion” (pages 183-184).

The specific distribution of alms is given on page 187 and is termed “an ordinance from god.”  These include “only unto the poor and needy, and those who are employed in the collecting and distributing the same, and unto those whose hearts are reconciled, and for the redemption of captives, and unto those who are in debt and insolvent, and for the advancement of god’s religion, and unto the traveler.”

The Koran asserts again that “god has purchased of the true believers their souls and their substance, promising them the enjoyment of paradise; on condition that they fight for the cause of god:  whether they slay or be slain, the promise for the same (i.e., for either slay or be slain) is assuredly due by the law, and the gospel (of Mohammed), and the Koran” (pages 196-197).  The Koran here refers to this as a “contract.”  This “contract” is kept by other works such as keeping ordinances, serving god (i.e., the Muslim god’s cause), praising and worshipping god, and basically acting justly.  Also here, true believers are forbidden to pray for “idolaters” (unbelievers).  The significance here is that the Muslims believe that their god is a god of works; while Christians believe that God is a God of grace.

The works requirement, mentioned throughout the Koran, is validated on pages 197-198 with the reference “god may reward them (Muslims) with a recompense exceeding that which they have wrought.”  Also here, true believers are commanded to “wage war against such of the infidels as are near you,” referring to the Jews (according to Sale).  Muslims are also told to be fierce toward them.

Chapter 10 – Jonas
This chapter begins by asserting that the Muslim god is the Christians’ and Jews’ God:  “Verily, your Lord is god” (page 199).  The Koran goes on to state many of the creative works of the Holy God, again leading the reader to believe that the Muslim god and the Holy God are one and the same.

On page 200, Sale cites Islamic commentary that allegedly proves the Koran was given to Mohammed.  Mohammed states in a verse, “I have already dwelt among you to the age of forty years.”  The Muslim commentary says that this alludes to god having given Mohammed the Koran because an unlearned, basically illiterate man could not sufficiently orate these words (although I don’t see the connection).

The Koran implies that the Muslim religion is original to mankind, which “men…  dissented therefrom” (page 201).

The Koran again asserts itself as having been given by god:  “This Koran could not have been composed by any except god; but it is a confirmation of that which was revealed before it, and an explanation of the (Holy) scriptures; there is no doubt thereof” (page 203).  Here, the Koran is saying that it confirms everything the Holy God said before it, and further explains the Holy Scriptures embraced by Jews and Christians.  For the Muslim,this notion supersedes the Word of God as given in the Holy Scriptures, and the Word of God made alive in Jesus Christ.

On page 205, it is implied that no part of the Koran can be declared unlawful except if someone lies.  There is also a contradictory statement regarding the necessity of works as a way of getting to paradise (as compared to chapter 9):  “They who believe and fear god, shall receive good tidings in this life, and in that which is to come.”  The question here is:  Are believing and fearing enough, or does the Muslim work his way to paradise?  The Koran insists throughout that works are required, in concert with belief.

There’s a troubling statement on page 209:  “No soul can believe but by the permission of god:  he shall pour out his indignation on those who do not understand.”  There seems to be much in the Koran about god controlling the eternal destiny of man, rather than man choosing to believe of his own free will to follow god (or God).

Chapter 11 – Hûd
This chapter begins by asserting that the Koran was given by god, and is his perfect, unchangeable word; and that the Muslim god is the real god (page 211).

This thought (that is, the Koran given by god) continues on page 212 where it is stated, “…whosoever of the confederate infidels believes not therein (about the Koran), is threatened with the fire of hell, which shall certainly be executed…  for it (the Koran) is the truth from your lord.”

On page 213, it is again inferred that god will lead people into error if he so chooses.

The idea of works being required for believers to be justified comes up again on page 221:  “…I will surely work according to my duty.  And you shall know on whom will be inflicted a punishment which shall cover him with shame, and who is a liar.”  The implication here is that the unbeliever (i.e., the infidel) is a liar because he denies everything Muslims believe, and he is punished in the fire of hell.  This is a recurring theme in the Koran (specifically mentioned again on page 224).

“Good works drive away evil” is quoted on page 223 as being necessary for a believer’s daily walk with god, specifically mentioned here in a routine of prayer.

Chapter 12 – Joseph
Sale relates in his commentary on this chapter that the word “Koran” serves to denote both the whole volume as well as individual chapters or readings.  This particular chapter was allegedly received by Mohammed when he was challenged by Jewish rabbis to tell how Jacob came to be in Egypt and Joseph came to be in power.  Sale reports that most Muslims largely reject this chapter or consider it apocryphal, a noteworthy thought considering that throughout the chapter, the Mohammedan religion (Islam) is highly embraced and credited with the truth of the story of Joseph, as well as confirming the truth of the Holy Scriptures.

On pages 229-230, the Koran alleges that Joseph “left the religion of people who believe not in God, and who deny the life to come (meaning Judaism); and I follow the religion of my fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (meaning religion of Islam, not Judaism).”  On page 230, Mohammed calls this “the right religion.”

Of all the fanciful and preposterous stories made up in this chapter, verses on page 238 cite a troubling view that Joseph wished to be  Muslim like his father Jacob.  His desire is summed up in the statement:  “Make me to die a Muslim.”

Finally, the Koran again asserts it’s veracity (which makes one wonder why Muslims reject this chapter) by stating, “The Koran is not a new invented fiction; but a confirmation of those scriptures which have been revealed before it, and a distinct explication of everything necessary, in respect either to faith or practice, and a direction of mercy unto people who believe (i.e., people who believe in Islam).”  This assertion continues even into the beginning of the next chapter, as well as throughout the entire volume.  It would be an exercise in redundancy to continue to bring this up.

Chapter 13 – Thunder
On page 240, Mohammed accuses infidels of denying the resurrection (referring to their own Lord, Jesus), even as they believe, “After we shall have been reduced to dust, shall we be restored in a new creature.”  This comes as Mohammed is affirming that god created everything as opposites (cited:  sweet and sour fruits, fertile and barren land, etc.).  This is very similar to the ancient Chinese philosophy of yin and yang, which “describe the way phenomena naturally group in pairs of opposites that are mutually complementary and require each other to exist.”†  That Mohammed was aware of the Old and New Testaments (albeit not profoundly), he was certainly aware of other cultural beliefs which influenced his ‘revelations.’

Here, Mohammed calls into question why infidels think they will resurrect in their newly created bodies if they deny the resurrection of Jesus.  It is a totally unsubstantiated claim, really an accusation (that Christians deny the resurrection), one that Mohammed used on occasion to rally Muslims to the “right religion.”

On pages 242-243, it is again stated that “god will lead into error whom he pleases, and will direct unto himself him who repents…”  It goes on to assert a works-salvific approach to “a happy resurrection (reward).”

And again, on page 244, the Koran states that god causes some to err, “and there shall be none to protect them,” alluding to a Savior, as in Jesus.

Chapter 14 – Abraham
On page 250, the Muslims believe that at the end of time, “the earth shall be changed into another earth, and the heavens into other heavens.”  This is contrary to the Christian’s belief of new heavens and a new earth being created after the old have dissolved and melted away (II Peter 3:13) .

Chapter 15 – Hejr
The Koran contends that god ordered the angels to fall down and worship man when he created him (page 235).  This opposes the view in the Holy Scriptures that the angels worship God alone, and that every created thing brings glory to God alone, including man.

Chapter 16 – The bee
On page 265, there is a more detailed statement regarding the purpose of the Koran:  “We (god) have sent down unto thee the book of the Koran, for an explication of everything necessary both as to faith and practice, and a directing and mercy, and good tidings unto the Moslems.”  Also stated on this page is that god “forbids wickedness, and iniquity, and oppression,” the latter of which modern-day Muslims have apparently forgotten about or perhaps believe it (oppression) is permissible under the guidelines set forth by the Koran.

The Koran suggests that god tempts believers:  “Verily, god only tempts you therein…” This follows several verses that referred to god knowing what believers do (in keeping their commitments to him and to others).  Following this “god tempts” statement is another assertion that “he (god) will lead into error whom he pleases, and he will direct whom he pleases.”  By comparison, the Holy God does not tempt.  The Holy Scriptures make that clear:  Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God;” for God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He Himself tempt anyone.  (James 1:13)

It is affirmed once again that Muslims believe that works and personal mediation are the means by which they will achieve eternal life with (and from) god:  “On a certain day shall every soul come to plead for itself, and every soul shall be repaid that which it shall have wrought” (page 269).  This is how the Muslim god provides justice:  accepting (or not) works and receiving (or rejecting) a self-justified claim of faith.

Chapter 17 – The night-journey
On page 273, it is again asserted that “this Koran directs unto the way which is most right, and declares unto the faithful, who do good works, that they shall receive a great reward.”  Note that works leading to reward is stressed here.

The Koran states, “Let him (someone seeking revenge) not exceed the bounds of moderation in putting to death the murderer in too cruel a manner, or by revenging his friend’s blood on any other than the person who killed him” (page 275).  In other words, the Koran disallows cruel and unusual capital punishment, which is usually carried out only for apostasy, adultery, or murder.  There are two modern-day problems with this command:  1) Islamic capital punishment is torturous and cruel, and carried out for many “crimes” not requiring a death penalty as indicated in the Koran.  2) Revenge is extended beyond the alleged perpetrator, usually to entire groups or subsets of the alleged perpetrator’s relationship.

We are reminded again that god commanded angels to worship Adam (man); all did except Eblîs, that is, Satan (page 278).

Genii, that is, fallen angels, are mentioned on occasion throughout the Koran.  On page 281, they are recognized as having some sort of power that even if combined with the power of men, the two could not “produce” anything like the Koran.  Also, most men don’t receive the Koran, as said, “merely out of infidelity” (disbelief).

And once again, the Koran states that god directs some rightly and some to err (page 282).

Finally, this chapter ends with a diatribe asserting the reasons the Koran was sent (its coming to man).  Also, it is explicitly stated that the Muslim god “has not begotten any child…  has no partner in the kingdom, nor has any to protect him from contempt; and magnify him by proclaiming his greatness.”  These statements clearly deny the begotten Son and the Holy Spirit of the Heavenly Father, neither of which Muslims believe, and in fact fully deny, are part-in-whole of the triune God.

Chapter 18 – The cave
The Koran explicitly states, again, that “good works, which are permanent, are better in the sight of thy Lord, with respect to the reward, and with respect to hope” (page 290).  As is often repeated in the Koran, a works-related salvation is emphasized.

Verses on page 296 repeat the mantras of God being only one (that is, not the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), the believer working his way to the reward of heaven (or in this case, “to meet his lord), and that hell was “prepared for the abode of the infidels.”  In contrast, hell, according the Holy Scriptures, was prepared for the devil and his angels:  Then He will also say to those on the left hand, “Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels” (Matthew 25:41).  Hell is the place where unbelievers in the Holy God go for eternal punishment as a result of not trusting in and living for Jesus as their Lord:  And these will go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.  (Matthew 25:46)

Chapter 19 – Mary
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

Chapter 20 – T. H.
On page 314, the Koran suggests that god will provide for Adam food, clothing, drink, and protection from the heat.  But Adam and Eve ate in the garden “and their nakedness appeared unto them.”  In other verses throughout the Koran, nakedness is not tolerated, and covering for the body is either required or expected.  Here, god purported to provide clothing for his Adam and Eve pre-Fall.  In the Holy Scriptures, there was no shame in nakedness pre-Fall:  And they were both naked, man and his wife, and were not ashamed (Genesis 2:25).  Plus, there were only limited times when nakedness was not tolerated (or not appropriate) after the Fall.

Chapter 21 – The prophets
The Koran claims that “the Jews and the Christians have made schisms in the affair of their religion among themselves” (page 324).  This signifies that the Jews and the Christians basically blew it and that Mohammed was sent by god, or rather that god sent the Koran to Mohammed, to straighten them out, as is implied in the verses that follow this accusation against the Jews and the Christians.

Chapter 22 – The pilgrimage
On page 327, the Koran states that creation  proves that god is truth.  In contrast, Jesus in the Truth:  I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me (John 14:6).  Therefore, the Holy God is Truth.

“For god loves not every perfidious unbeliever” (page 331) is frequently taught throughout the Koran; that is, the Muslim god does not love everyone, especially unbelievers.  This is in stark contrast to the Holy God who loves everyone in the world and who, in fact, gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life (John 3:16).

On page 333, it is stated that god “may make that which Satan has suggested, a temptation unto those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, and whose hearts are hardened (…from the truth).”  In other words, god will tempt people; in contrast to the Holy Scriptures which says, “Let no one say when he is tempted, ‘I am tempted by God;’ for God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He Himself tempt anyone.”  (James 1:13).

Chapter 23 – The true believers
The chapter begins with several verses about the creation of man, followed by the statement, “And we (i.e., god) have created over you seven heavens” (page 336).  It is one of a number of places in the Koran where Muslims get the idea of seven, or multiple, heavens.  The concept is again mentioned on page 340.

Chapter 24 – Light
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

Chapter 25 – Al Forkân
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

Chapter 26 – The poets
On page 362, the Koran retells (again) the story of Moses.  Here, Pharaoh tells his magicians – who believed and worshiped the Lord (in the version) – “I will cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will crucify you all.”  The problem is, this type of punitive amputation was not practiced (nor known) during the time of Moses.  It was a punishment practiced by Muslims as dictated much later by the Koran.  Likewise, crucifixion was also not a known form of capital punishment during Moses’ time.

The Koran only gives hope for forgiveness, as opposed to the holy God who gives assurance of forgiveness.  On page 363, even Abraham was said to only expect hope:  “…and who (the Muslim god), I (Abraham) hope, will forgive my sins on the day of judgment.”  This from a man whom Muslims consider one of their great prophets.

Chapter 27 – The ant
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

Chapter 28 – The Story
On page 379, the Koran says that god is ready to forgive, and to extend mercy.  This is contrary to statements in the Koran that describe god as forgiving who he desires to forgive, and leading some to do right and some to err.

The Koran claims that believers in god in the time before the Holy Scriptures were given (to Jews and Christians) were Moslem, and now, with the giving of the Koran, believe in both the Holy Scriptures and the Koran.  They therefore “shall receive their reward twice” for having believed in both (page 382).

Chapter 29 – The spider
On page 388, the Koran advocates disobeying one’s parents if they “endeavor to prevail” upon the one that which is not associated with the Muslim god (or, “that concerning which you have no knowledge”).  The command is poignant:  “obey them not.”  The Muslim faith, therefore, allows for anyone to be disobedient if their parents try to raise them up according to the Holy Scriptures, as encouraged in Ephesians 6:4 – And you, fathers, do not provoke your children to wrath, but bring them up in the training and admonition of the Lord.  By extension, anyone raised in a Judeo-Christian culture, and who wishes to convert to Islam, can and should, by command of the Koran, disobey their parents  in this regard.

Chapter 30 – The Greeks
On page 347, the calls Islam the right religion:  “…set your face toward the true religion (Islam),” and “This (Islam) is the right religion.”  Note the contrast with the Holy Scriptures in James 1:27, which read, “Pure and undefiled religion before God and the Father is this:  to visit orphans and widows in their trouble, and to keep oneself unspotted from the world.”

“(F)or he (god) loves not the unbelievers” (page 398) – again, introduces yet another discourse on god loving some and hating others.

Chapter 31 – Lokmân
Commentary on page 403 discloses the Moslem’s tradition, ascribed to their prophet (Mohammed), of the five keys of secret knowledge know to god alone.  They are:

1.  The time of the day of judgment;

2. The time of rain;

3.  What is forming in the womb (as to whether male or female);

4.  What shall happen tomorrow;

5.  And Where any person shall die.

Chapter 32 – Adoration
On page 405, it is said again that eternal punishment in hell was prepared by god for unbelievers:  “Taste therefore the torment prepared for you.”  About a verse prior to this, the Koran quotes god as saying, “Verily I will fill hell with genii and men altogether.”  However, the reference “torment was prepared for you” was directed at unbelieving men.

Chapter 33 – The confederates
The Koran gives explicit details of the types of actions both men and women can do by which “god prepared forgiveness and great reward,” once again showing that restoration to god, in Islam, is a works-based salvation (page 412).  Among these actions that men and women can do are:

– being a true believer
– being devout
– acting with veracity
– practicing patience
– being humble
– giving alms
– fasting
– being chaste (this one is really a head-scratcher)
– remembering God frequently

This chapter is full of exceptions for Mohammed regarding his marriages (and subsequent infatuation for women).  In fact, it is revealed that he lusted (albeit in a ‘controlled’ way), after his adopted son’s wife.  The son, seeing this, divorced his wife so dad could have her.  Specific statements were fashioned (that is, conveniently “received” by Mohammed) to allow for this.  Likewise, he was permitted to marry many more wives than other men were allowed (the limit was four).  The traditional limitations of certain degrees of marriage (between people and families) were also supernaturally, prophetically, and conveniently overlooked for Mohammed.

Chapter 34 – Saba
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

Chapter 35 – The Creator
As it has on numerous other occasions, the Koran states, “god will cause to err whom he pleases, and will direct whom he pleases” (page 426).

On page 428, the Koran again asserts itself as truth that confirms the Holy Scriptures:  “That which we have revealed unto you of the book of the Koran, is the truth, confirming scriptures which were revealed before it.”

Again, as it has on numerous other occasions, the Koran states, “But for the unbelievers is prepared the fire of hell” (page 429).

Chapter 36 – Y. S.
On page 434 is found, “On this day (judgment) no soul shall be unjustly treated in the least; neither shall you be rewarded, but according to what you have wrought.”  There are two problems here:  1) The Koran advocates in numerous places for judgment partial to whomever god wants in his heaven – meaning that the Koran contradicts itself too many times to mention, especially when it says statements like some people will be “unjustly treated” (by god); 2) Again, it is noted that reward is based upon works; therefore, this is another clear evidence of works-based salvation, also mentioned often in the Koran.

Chapter 37 – Those who rank themselves in order
It is mentioned on page 437 that there will be virgins in paradise awaiting the true believers – virgins being one of many rewards for faithful Moslems.  However, no specific number of virgins is cited here.

Chapter 38 – S.
On pages 447-448, The Koran repeats several Islamic beliefs mentioned many times before (and after), namely:

– hell was created for infidels;

– angels were commanded by god to worship his created man (all did except Satan, named Eblîs in the Koran);

– the Moslem god is a forgiver of sins (also page 449);

– the Moslem god created angels from fire;

– the Moslem god permits Satan to set his own sentence (“god said, ‘It is a just sentence.'”)

Chapter 39 – The troops
The Koran again denies the Triune God, especially God the Son.

On page 452, “But he whom god shall cause to err, shall have none to direct him:  and he whom god shall direct, shall have none to mislead him.”

Chapter 40 – The true followers
On page 461, “The creation of heaven and earth is more considerable than the creation of man.”  This belief by Moslems opposes the teaching in the Holy Scriptures that man is the highest creation of God:  made in His image and glory (I Corinthians 11:7); and that creation of man and woman was “very good” (Genesis 1:31, note that other creation events were termed “good”).

Chapter 41 – The distinctly explained
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

Chapter 42 – Consultation
On page 471, are these verses:  “The reward which is with god is better and more durable (than the provisions of this present life)” for those who believe in god, “and whose affairs are directed by consultation among themselves and who give alms.”  These statements signify self-righteousness, or social-righteousness, as opposed to righteousness for Christians that can only come from the Holy God (not of self).  Also, this reward is for those who avenge themselves “with evil proportionate thereto,” that is, to do the same amount of harm done to oneself by another.  Yet these verses are followed by comments about reconciliation and forgiveness, and those who do reconcile and forgive “receive his reward from god” (page 472).

Chapter 43 – The ornament of gold
The Koran underestimates the determined purpose of the Holy God in His act of creating humankind who, the Holy Scriptures says, are given the command by God Himself to have dominion over the things He created.  God, having made man in His image, gave man the the ability to dominate, and needed not to subject things unto man.  However, the Koran states, “Praise be unto him (god), who has subjected these (ships, the seas, cattle, etc.) unto our services!  For we could not have mastered them by our own power” (page 473).

On page 476, “Jesus is no other than a servant.”  This section of the chapter claims the inferiority of Jesus, denying Him to be the Son of God, saying that angels are more worthy of that honor (explained thus in the commentary by Sale, too).

Chapter 44 – Smoke
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

Chapter 45 – The kneeling
This chapter mentions several times rewarding believers for their works.

Chapter 46 – Al Ahkâf
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

Chapter 47 – Mohammed
The chapter begins with a command for Moslems:  “When you encounter the unbelievers, strike off their heads, until you have made a great slaughter among them; and bind them in bonds:  either give them a free dismissal afterwards, or exert a ransom, until the war shall have laid down its arms” (page 489).  The commentary suggests that many Moslems still hold to this violent response upon their enemies, the unbelievers.  This is proving to be true around the world today, in the 21st century, as Moslems continue violent oppression and attacks, with very little condemnation from the orthodox Moslem community (at least determinedly forceful and meaningful condemnation).

Chapter 48 – The victory
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

Chapter 49 – The inner apartments
The 1st verse contradicts chapter 42 where Moslems are permitted to consult among themselves about matters leading to (self) righteousness:  “Consider not any matter in the sight of god and the apostle” (page 497), and so on in the verses that following.

On page 498 is “god loves those who act justly.”  So, why do not Moslems practice peaceful, non-violent justice, as detailed in the verses which make up this chapter?

Chapter 50 – K
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

51 – The dispersing
The Koran states on page 505 that god “(has) not created genii (that is, fallen angels) and men for any other end than that they should serve me.”

52 – The mountain
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

53 – The star
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

54 – The moon
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

55 – The merciful
As before, the Koran states that god created genii (angels, though fallen) of fire (page 514).

56 – The inevitable
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

57 – Iron
On page 522-523, it is believed that god “sent them down iron, which is mighty strength for war.”  The commentary expounds that Adam is said to have brought down with him from paradise five things made of iron:  an anvil, a pair of tongs, two hammers (one large and one small), and a needle.  The Holy Scriptures, however, teach that a descendant of Adam, Tubal Cain, was the instructor of all things metal (not Adam, see Genesis 4:22).

Jesus is mentioned in a verse on page 523.  Here, the Koran claims that “we (god) gave him (Jesus) the gospel.”  Jesus is treated as the other apostles claimed by the Koran (like Adam, Noah, Abraham, etc.).  In this case, not as the Son of God (which is denied by Moslems) but as just another prophet, albeit an important one, nearly equal to Mohammed.

58 – The woman who disputed
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

59 – The emigration
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

60 – The woman who is tried
On page 532, the Koran forbids Moslems from dealing unkindly with anyone, believers or infidels, who has “not borne arms against you on account of religion.”  Therefore, people of other religions should be able to live peaceably with Moslems without fear of violence toward them, that is, if true Moslems (Islamists) would obey this command of their Koran and god.

61 – Battle array
“Verily, god loves those who fight for his religion in battle array” (page 534).

Jesus is mentioned again (page 534) as being merely another prophet (apostle), the Koran saying of Him, “bringing good tidings of an apostle of god sent unto you, confirming the law which was delivered before me, and bringing good tidings of an apostle who shall come after me, and whose name shall be Ahmed (meaning Mohammed).”  Jesus, here, is treated as if He were a forerunner of Mohammed, like John the Baptizer was for Him.

A few verses later, Mohammed’s mission is stated:  “…that he may exalt the same (religion of truth, that is, Islam) above every religion” (page 534).

62 – The assembly
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

63 – The hypocrites
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

64 – Mutual deceit
Again, but in more definitive words, the Koran states about people, “…one of you is predestined to be an unbeliever, and another of you is predestined to be a believer (page 538).  It’s rather like their ‘Calvinistic’ statement of faith.

65 – Divorce
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

66 – Prohibition
As in the beginning of the Koran, and occasionally throughout, mention is made of punishment with “fire…  and stones” (page 543, see also chapter 2, page 4).

67 – The kingdom
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

68 – The pen
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

69 – The infallible
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

70 – The steps
As in chapter 56 (page 518), god is said to be able to “substitute better than them,” that is, those unbelievers he will destroy, and nothing can prevent him from doing so “if we (god) shall please to do so” (page 553).  This context demonstrates, again, the fickleness of the Moslem god, and his leading some in the right way, and some to err, however and whatever he wants.  It is again referenced in chapter 76 (page 565).

71 – Noah
On page 553, Noah as one of the prophets says of god, “he will forgive you of part of your sins.”  Notice the non-assurance of complete forgiveness as with the Holy God.

72 – The genii
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

73 – The wrapped up
Alms giving and doing good are again cited as means for greater reward (pages 558-559).

74 – The covered
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

75 – The resurrection
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

76 – Man
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said (except see note on chapter 70 on god substituting).

77 – Those which are sent
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

78 – The news
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

79 – Those who tear forth
Throughout the Koran, the Moslem god is said to lead some to do right and thus to great reward, and lead others to err, and this to eternal punishment.  On page 569, however, is this:  “And whoso shall have transgressed and shall have chosen this present life; verily hell shall be his abode.”  Here, a man has a choice, a theme that is indeed expressed throughout the Koran but only as compared to the greater emphasis in the Koran of god doing the choosing.

80 – He frowned
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

81 – The folding up
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

82 – The cleaving in sunder
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

83 – Those who give short measure or weight
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

84 – The rending in sunder
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

85 – The celestial sign
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

86 – The star which appears by night
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

87 – The most high
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

88 – The overwhelming
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

89 – The daybreak
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

90 – The territory
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

91 – The sun
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

92 – The night
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

93 – The brightness
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

94 – Have we not opened
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

95 – The fig
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

96 – Congealed blood
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

97 – Al Kadr
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

98 – The evidence
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

99 – The earthquake
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

100 – The war horses which run swiftly
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

101 – The striking
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

102 – The emulous desire of multiplying
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

103 – The afternoon
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

104 – The slanderer
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

105 – The elephant
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

106 – The Koreish
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

107 – Necessaries
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

108 – Al Cawthar
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

109 – The unbelievers
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

110 – Assistance
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

111 – Abu Laheb
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

112 – The declaration of god’s unity
This chapter, perhaps the shortest, denies god begetting:  “he begets not” (page 595), presumably he begets not a son, as in the Holy God having begotten His only Son, Jesus.  Again, the Koran teaches, and Moslems believe, that god is not and cannot be triune, as Christians believe the Holy God is triune in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

113 – The daybreak
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

114 – Of men
Nothing noteworthy that hasn’t already been said.

END

_________________________
Resources (all internet sources vetted):

* Oxford University Press

** Sale, G.  (1909).  The Koran:  Translated into English from the original Arabic with explanatory notes from the most approved commentators.  London:  Warne.

*** Jordanian pilot ‘burned alive’ by IS. (n.d.).  Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-31121160

**** The spread of Islam.  (1967).  In Wallbank, T., & Taylor, A.  (1967).  Civilization past and present: 3. ed.  Glenview, IL:  Scott, Foresman and Company.  This volume states, “Before Muhammad’s time, each tribe had its own Sunna, or body of custom, which served as a law code.  By compiling the recollections of the Prophet’s companions, his followers prepared a Sunna based on his life and teachings.  Using the Koran and the Sunna as their sources, Islamic jurists developed a body of canon law which regulated all aspects of Muslim life.  The law was held to be as divinely inspired as the sources on which it was based.” (page 176)

Ancient healing:  Unlocking the mysteries of health and healing through the ages.  (1997).  Lincolnwood, Ill.:  Publications International.  This is not meant to assume that Mohammed was well-versed in the ancient arts, just that he was influenced by this, as well as other, cultural, historical, and even religious customs.

_________________________

For historical background, see:
Answering Islam, A Christian-Muslim Dialog and Apologetic. (n.d.).  Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://answering-islam.org/index.html

Macrohistory:  World History.  (n.d.).  Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.fsmitha.com/index.html

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